Information

Author(s) Olivier Bonaventure
Deadline No deadline
Submission limit No limitation
Category tags DNS

Tags

Sign in

DNS lookup for www.google.com


DNS lookup

A student collected a packet trace while running the following command:

dig -t AAAA www.google.com

This trace was collected with a resolver that does not store any record in its cache. Can you reorder the packets of this trace by looking and the succession of the types of DNS requests starting from the root ?

# Length Summary Status
0 21 bytes Domain Name System (query)
1 276 bytes Domain Name System (response)
2 509 bytes Domain Name System (response)
3 60 bytes Domain Name System (response)
4 32 bytes Domain Name System (query)
5 28 bytes Domain Name System (query)

0000  d76d012000010000  0000000003636f6d  
0010  0000020001                          

0000  ×m. .........com
0010  .....           
  • Domain Name System (query)
    • Transaction ID: 0xd76d
      • Flags: 0x0120 Standard query
        • 0... .... .... .... = Response: Message is a query
          • .000 0... .... .... = Opcode: Standard query (0)
            • .... ..0. .... .... = Truncated: Message is not truncated
              • .... ...1 .... .... = Recursion desired: Do query recursively
                • .... .... .0.. .... = Z: reserved (0)
                  • .... .... ..1. .... = AD bit: Set
                    • .... .... ...0 .... = Non-authenticated data: Unacceptable
                    • Questions: 1
                      • Answer RRs: 0
                        • Authority RRs: 0
                          • Additional RRs: 0
                            • Queries
                              • com: type NS, class IN
                                • Name: com
                                  • Name Length: 3
                                    • Label Count: 1
                                      • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                        • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                    0000  a1a2810000010000  0004000806676f6f  
                                    0010  676c6503636f6d00  00020001c00c0002  
                                    0020  00010002a3000006  036e7332c00cc00c  
                                    0030  000200010002a300  0006036e7331c00c  
                                    0040  c00c000200010002  a3000006036e7333  
                                    0050  c00cc00c00020001  0002a3000006036e  
                                    0060  7334c00cc028001c  00010002a3000010  
                                    0070  2001486048020034  000000000000000a  
                                    0080  c028000100010002  a3000004d8ef220a  
                                    0090  c03a001c00010002  a300001020014860  
                                    00A0  4802003200000000  0000000ac03a0001  
                                    00B0  00010002a3000004  d8ef200ac04c001c  
                                    00C0  00010002a3000010  2001486048020036  
                                    00D0  000000000000000a  c04c000100010002  
                                    00E0  a3000004d8ef240a  c05e001c00010002  
                                    00F0  a300001020014860  4802003800000000  
                                    0100  0000000ac05e0001  00010002a3000004  
                                    0110  d8ef260a                            

                                    0000  ¡¢...........goo
                                    0010  gle.com.....À...
                                    0020  ....£....ns2À.À.
                                    0030  ......£....ns1À.
                                    0040  À.......£....ns3
                                    0050  À.À.......£....n
                                    0060  s4À.À(......£...
                                    0070   .H`H..4........
                                    0080  À(......£...Øï".
                                    0090  À:......£... .H`
                                    00A0  H..2........À:..
                                    00B0  ....£...Øï .ÀL..
                                    00C0  ....£... .H`H..6
                                    00D0  ........ÀL......
                                    00E0  £...Øï$.À^......
                                    00F0  £... .H`H..8....
                                    0100  ....À^......£...
                                    0110  Øï&.            
                                    • Domain Name System (response)
                                      • Transaction ID: 0xa1a2
                                        • Flags: 0x8100 Standard query response, No error
                                          • 1... .... .... .... = Response: Message is a response
                                            • .000 0... .... .... = Opcode: Standard query (0)
                                              • .... .0.. .... .... = Authoritative: Server is not an authority for domain
                                                • .... ..0. .... .... = Truncated: Message is not truncated
                                                  • .... ...1 .... .... = Recursion desired: Do query recursively
                                                    • .... .... 0... .... = Recursion available: Server can't do recursive queries
                                                      • .... .... .0.. .... = Z: reserved (0)
                                                        • .... .... ..0. .... = Answer authenticated: Answer/authority portion was not authenticated by the server
                                                          • .... .... ...0 .... = Non-authenticated data: Unacceptable
                                                            • .... .... .... 0000 = Reply code: No error (0)
                                                            • Questions: 1
                                                              • Answer RRs: 0
                                                                • Authority RRs: 4
                                                                  • Additional RRs: 8
                                                                    • Queries
                                                                      • google.com: type NS, class IN
                                                                        • Name: google.com
                                                                          • Name Length: 10
                                                                            • Label Count: 2
                                                                              • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                              • Authoritative nameservers
                                                                                • google.com: type NS, class IN, ns ns2.google.com
                                                                                  • Name: google.com
                                                                                    • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                          • Data length: 6
                                                                                            • Name Server: ns2.google.com
                                                                                            • google.com: type NS, class IN, ns ns1.google.com
                                                                                              • Name: google.com
                                                                                                • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                      • Data length: 6
                                                                                                        • Name Server: ns1.google.com
                                                                                                        • google.com: type NS, class IN, ns ns3.google.com
                                                                                                          • Name: google.com
                                                                                                            • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                  • Data length: 6
                                                                                                                    • Name Server: ns3.google.com
                                                                                                                    • google.com: type NS, class IN, ns ns4.google.com
                                                                                                                      • Name: google.com
                                                                                                                        • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                              • Data length: 6
                                                                                                                                • Name Server: ns4.google.com
                                                                                                                              • Additional records
                                                                                                                                • ns2.google.com: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:4860:4802:34::a
                                                                                                                                  • Name: ns2.google.com
                                                                                                                                    • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                            • AAAA Address: 2001:4860:4802:34::a
                                                                                                                                            • ns2.google.com: type A, class IN, addr 216.239.34.10
                                                                                                                                              • Name: ns2.google.com
                                                                                                                                                • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                        • Address: 216.239.34.10
                                                                                                                                                        • ns1.google.com: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:4860:4802:32::a
                                                                                                                                                          • Name: ns1.google.com
                                                                                                                                                            • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                    • AAAA Address: 2001:4860:4802:32::a
                                                                                                                                                                    • ns1.google.com: type A, class IN, addr 216.239.32.10
                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: ns1.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                • Address: 216.239.32.10
                                                                                                                                                                                • ns3.google.com: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:4860:4802:36::a
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: ns3.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                            • AAAA Address: 2001:4860:4802:36::a
                                                                                                                                                                                            • ns3.google.com: type A, class IN, addr 216.239.36.10
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: ns3.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Address: 216.239.36.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ns4.google.com: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:4860:4802:38::a
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: ns4.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • AAAA Address: 2001:4860:4802:38::a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ns4.google.com: type A, class IN, addr 216.239.38.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: ns4.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Address: 216.239.38.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0000  d76d810000010000  000d000c03636f6d  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0010  0000020001c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0020  1401610c67746c64  2d73657276657273  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0030  036e657400c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0040  040162c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0050  040163c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0060  040164c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0070  040165c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0080  040166c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0090  040167c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00A0  040168c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00B0  040169c023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00C0  04016ac023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00D0  04016bc023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00E0  04016cc023c00c00  0200010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00F0  04016dc023c02100  0100010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0100  04c005061ec02100  1c00010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0110  1020010503a83e00  0000000000000200  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0120  30c0410001000100  02a3000004c0210e  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0130  1ec041001c000100  02a3000010200105  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0140  03231d0000000000  0000020030c05100  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0150  0100010002a30000  04c01a5c1ec05100  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0160  1c00010002a30000  102001050383eb00  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0170  0000000000000000  30c0610001000100  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0180  02a3000004c01f50  1ec061001c000100  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0190  02a3000010200105  00856e0000000000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01A0  0000000030c07100  0100010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01B0  04c00c5e1ec07100  1c00010002a30000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01C0  10200105021ca100  0000000000000000  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01D0  30c0810001000100  02a3000004c02333  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01E0  1ec081001c000100  02a3000010200105  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01F0  03d4140000000000  0000000030        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0000  ×m...........com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0010  .....À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0020  ..a.gtld-servers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0030  .net.À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0040  ..bÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0050  ..cÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0060  ..dÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0070  ..eÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0080  ..fÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0090  ..gÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00A0  ..hÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00B0  ..iÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00C0  ..jÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00D0  ..kÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00E0  ..lÀ#À.......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            00F0  ..mÀ#À!......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0100  .À...À!......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0110  . ...¨>.........
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0120  0ÀA......£...À!.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0130  .ÀA......£... ..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0140  .#..........0ÀQ.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0150  .....£...À.\.ÀQ.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0160  .....£... ....ë.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0170  ........0Àa.....
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0180  .£...À.P.Àa.....
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0190  .£... ....n.....
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01A0  ....0Àq......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01B0  .À.^.Àq......£..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01C0  . ....¡.........
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01D0  0À.......£...À#3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01E0  .À.......£... ..
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01F0  .Ô..........0   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Domain Name System (response)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Transaction ID: 0xd76d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Flags: 0x8100 Standard query response, No error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • 1... .... .... .... = Response: Message is a response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • .000 0... .... .... = Opcode: Standard query (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • .... .0.. .... .... = Authoritative: Server is not an authority for domain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • .... ..0. .... .... = Truncated: Message is not truncated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • .... ...1 .... .... = Recursion desired: Do query recursively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • .... .... 0... .... = Recursion available: Server can't do recursive queries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • .... .... .0.. .... = Z: reserved (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • .... .... ..0. .... = Answer authenticated: Answer/authority portion was not authenticated by the server
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • .... .... ...0 .... = Non-authenticated data: Unacceptable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • .... .... .... 0000 = Reply code: No error (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Questions: 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Answer RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Authority RRs: 13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Additional RRs: 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Queries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • com: type NS, class IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name Length: 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Label Count: 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Authoritative nameservers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • com: type NS, class IN, ns a.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name Server: a.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • com: type NS, class IN, ns b.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Name Server: b.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • com: type NS, class IN, ns c.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Name Server: c.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • com: type NS, class IN, ns d.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Name Server: d.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • com: type NS, class IN, ns e.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name Server: e.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • com: type NS, class IN, ns f.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Name Server: f.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • com: type NS, class IN, ns g.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Name Server: g.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • com: type NS, class IN, ns h.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Name Server: h.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • com: type NS, class IN, ns i.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name Server: i.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • com: type NS, class IN, ns j.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Name Server: j.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • com: type NS, class IN, ns k.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Name Server: k.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • com: type NS, class IN, ns l.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Name Server: l.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • com: type NS, class IN, ns m.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name Server: m.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Additional records
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • a.gtld-servers.net: type A, class IN, addr 192.5.6.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: a.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Address: 192.5.6.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • a.gtld-servers.net: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:503:a83e::2:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: a.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • AAAA Address: 2001:503:a83e::2:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • b.gtld-servers.net: type A, class IN, addr 192.33.14.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: b.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Address: 192.33.14.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • b.gtld-servers.net: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:503:231d::2:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: b.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • AAAA Address: 2001:503:231d::2:30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • c.gtld-servers.net: type A, class IN, addr 192.26.92.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: c.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Address: 192.26.92.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • c.gtld-servers.net: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:503:83eb::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: c.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • AAAA Address: 2001:503:83eb::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • d.gtld-servers.net: type A, class IN, addr 192.31.80.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: d.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Address: 192.31.80.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • d.gtld-servers.net: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:500:856e::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: d.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • AAAA Address: 2001:500:856e::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • e.gtld-servers.net: type A, class IN, addr 192.12.94.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name: e.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Address: 192.12.94.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e.gtld-servers.net: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:502:1ca1::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: e.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • AAAA Address: 2001:502:1ca1::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • f.gtld-servers.net: type A, class IN, addr 192.35.51.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: f.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: A (Host Address) (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Address: 192.35.51.30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • f.gtld-servers.net: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2001:503:d414::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Name: f.gtld-servers.net
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Time to live: 172800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • AAAA Address: 2001:503:d414::30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0000  4b4d850000010001  0000000003777777  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0010  06676f6f676c6503  636f6d00001c0001  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0020  c00c001c00010000  012c00102a001450  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0030  400e080900000000  00002004          

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0000  KM...........www
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0010  .google.com.....
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0020  À........,..*..P
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0030  @......... .    
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Domain Name System (response)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Transaction ID: 0x4b4d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Flags: 0x8500 Standard query response, No error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • 1... .... .... .... = Response: Message is a response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • .000 0... .... .... = Opcode: Standard query (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • .... .1.. .... .... = Authoritative: Server is an authority for domain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • .... ..0. .... .... = Truncated: Message is not truncated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • .... ...1 .... .... = Recursion desired: Do query recursively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • .... .... 0... .... = Recursion available: Server can't do recursive queries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • .... .... .0.. .... = Z: reserved (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • .... .... ..0. .... = Answer authenticated: Answer/authority portion was not authenticated by the server
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • .... .... ...0 .... = Non-authenticated data: Unacceptable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • .... .... .... 0000 = Reply code: No error (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Questions: 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Answer RRs: 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Authority RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Additional RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Queries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • www.google.com: type AAAA, class IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name: www.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name Length: 14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Label Count: 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Answers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • www.google.com: type AAAA, class IN, addr 2a00:1450:400e:809::2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Name: www.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time to live: 300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Data length: 16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • AAAA Address: 2a00:1450:400e:809::2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0000  4b4d012000010000  0000000003777777  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0010  06676f6f676c6503  636f6d00001c0001  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0000  KM. .........www
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0010  .google.com.....
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Domain Name System (query)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Transaction ID: 0x4b4d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Flags: 0x0120 Standard query
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 0... .... .... .... = Response: Message is a query
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • .000 0... .... .... = Opcode: Standard query (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • .... ..0. .... .... = Truncated: Message is not truncated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • .... ...1 .... .... = Recursion desired: Do query recursively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • .... .... .0.. .... = Z: reserved (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • .... .... ..1. .... = AD bit: Set
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • .... .... ...0 .... = Non-authenticated data: Unacceptable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Questions: 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Answer RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Authority RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Additional RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Queries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • www.google.com: type AAAA, class IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Name: www.google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name Length: 14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Label Count: 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Type: AAAA (IPv6 Address) (28)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Class: IN (0x0001)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0000  a1a2012000010000  0000000006676f6f  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0010  676c6503636f6d00  00020001          

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0000  ¡¢. .........goo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0010  gle.com.....    
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Domain Name System (query)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Transaction ID: 0xa1a2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Flags: 0x0120 Standard query
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 0... .... .... .... = Response: Message is a query
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • .000 0... .... .... = Opcode: Standard query (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • .... ..0. .... .... = Truncated: Message is not truncated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • .... ...1 .... .... = Recursion desired: Do query recursively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • .... .... .0.. .... = Z: reserved (0)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • .... .... ..1. .... = AD bit: Set
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • .... .... ...0 .... = Non-authenticated data: Unacceptable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Questions: 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Answer RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Authority RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Additional RRs: 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Queries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • google.com: type NS, class IN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Name: google.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Name Length: 10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Label Count: 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Type: NS (authoritative Name Server) (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Class: IN (0x0001)