In this exercise, we will work with operation on bits. When we speak about the position of a bit, index 0 corresponds to lowest order bit, 1 to the second-lowest order bit, ...

In C source code, you can write a number in binary (base 2) by prefixing it via 0b., e.g. 0b11010 = 26.

This exercise will introduce some non-standard data types which guarantee that the variable has a fixed number of bits. Indeed, on some machines, a *int* could use 2, 4 or 8 bytes. Hence, if we want to perform bitwise operations, we have to know first on how many bits we are working.

For this, C introduces a new class of variable types :

*int8_t*(signed integer of 8 bits)*uint8_t*(unsigned integer of 8 bits)*uint16_t*(unsigned integer of 16 bits)

You can mix *uint* or *int* with bit-lengths 8, 16, 32 and 64). These types are defined in <stdint.h>